Omega 3 and Cardiovascular Diseases: Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E after myocardial infarction
Lancet. 1999 Aug 7; 354(9177):447-55.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10465168
11,324 patients surviving recent (< or = 3 months) myocardial infarction were randomly assigned supplements of ω -3 PUFA (1 g daily, n=2836), vitamin E (300 mg daily, n=2830), both (n=2830), or none (control, n=2828) for 3.5 years. The primary combined efficacy endpoint was death, non - fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Intention to treat analyses were done according to a factorial design (two-way) and by treatment group (four-way). Treatment with ω-3 PUFA, but not vitamin E, significantly lowered the risk of the primary endpoint (relative-risk decrease 10% [95% CI 1-18] by two-way analysis, 15% [2-26] by four-way analysis). Benefit was attributable to a decrease in the risk of death (14% [3-24] two-way, 20% [6-33] four-way) and cardiovascular death (17% [3-29] two-way, 30% [13-44] four-way). The effect of the combined treatment was similar to that for ω-3 PUFA for the primary endpoint (14% [1-26]) and for fatal events (20% [5-33]). INTERPRETATION: Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA led to a clinically important and statistically significant benefit. Vitamin E had no benefit. Its effects on fatal cardiovascular events require further exploration
Omega 3 and Inflammation: Stereo chemical assignment, anti-inflammatory properties, and receptor For the omega-3 lipid mediator resolving E1 Journal of Experimental Medicine,2005 (Vol.201) (No. 5) 713-722 .http://jem.rupress.org/content/201/5/713.full.pdf+html
The essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) present in fish oils displays beneficial effects in a range of human disorders associated with inflammation including cardiovascular disease. Resolving E1 ( RvE1 ), a new bioactive oxygenated product of EPA, was identified in human plasma and prepared by total organic synthesis. At nanomolar levels, RvE1 dramatically reduced dermal inflammation, peritonitis, dendritic cell (DC) migration, and interleukin (IL) 12 production. We screened receptors and identified one, denoted earlier as ChemR23 that mediates RvE1 signal to attenuate nuclear factor-κB. Specific binding of RvE1 to this receptor was confirmed using synthetic [3H]-labelled RvE1. Treatment of DCs with small interference RNA specific for ChemR23 sharply reduced RvE1 regulation of IL-12. These results demonstrate novel counter regulatory responses in inflammation initiated via Rv E1 receptor activation that provide the first evidence for EPA-derived potent endogenous agonists of ant inflammation.
Omega 3 and Infant Brain: Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age.
Pediatrics. 2003 Jan; 111(1):e39-44.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509593
There is a growth spurt in the human brain during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first postnatal months, with a large increase in the cerebral content of AA and DHA. The fetus and the newborn infant depend on maternal supply of DHA and AA. The study examined the effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating women with very-long-chain ω-3 PUFA’s on mental development of the children, compared with maternal supplementation with long-chain ω -6 PUFAs. Children who were born to mothers who had taken ω-3 PUFA’s during pregnancy and lactation scored higher on the Mental Processing Composite of the K- ABC at 4 years of age as compared with children whose mothers had taken ω-6 PUFAs. The children's mental processing scores at 4 years of age correlated significantly with maternal intake of DHA and EPA during pregnancy. In a multiple regression model, maternal intake of DHA during pregnancy was the only variable of statistical significance for the children’s mental processing scores at 4 years of age. Maternal intake of very-long-chain ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and lactation is favorable for later mental development of children.